Hardwood Trees

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Birch, River (Betula nigra)   Not Available in 2020!!               

A medium to tall tree with attractive exfoliating bark in shades of tan, pinkish salmon and reddish brown.  30-60’ tall and 25-40’ wide crown.  Native  to SE MN, growing along streams and in flood plains, growing well in sites that are wet part of the year but dry in summer and fall.  Tolerant of compaction and drought.  Abundant tiny seeds eaten by turkey, grouse, small birds.  May be difficult to grow from bare root stock. Links:   MN Dept of Transportation Plant Selector; Forestry Images; Trees of Wisconsin; Right Tree Handbook; Ohio DNR; USDA Forest Service Silvics on North America;

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Cherry, Black (Prunus serotina) 

A medium sized native tree with a height of 40-60’ and width of 20-40’.  Has a narrow oval crown.  Wood is prized for lumber and furniture.  Flowers are small and white borne in 4-6” long racemes in spring.  Fruits are small black edible cherries ripening from June to October. Links:  MN Tree Handbook; The Right Tree Handbook; Ohio DNR; Virginia Tech; MN Dept of Transportation Plant Selector; U of W Madison; Wood Bin; USDA Forest Service Silvics; American Hardwood Information Center

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Elm, "Princeton" American (Ulmus americana)  Not Available in 2020!!

A dense symmetrical upright Elm has dark green foliage which turns yellow in the fall. One of the best American Dutch Elms for resisting the attack of Dutch Elm Disease.  Developed by Princeton Nurseries in 1922 and planted in Princeton, NJ in the 1930s.  Height of 75-90 feet and width of 50-60 feet.  Princeton elms are grown from cuttings off of trees descended from the original Princeton elm first selected in 1920 for its classic American elm attributes. They are produced on their own root. No variety of American elm is totally immune to Dutch Elm Disease. However, this elm has proven tolerant to the fungus (Ophiostoma ulmi). In other words, even though the fungus may infect a Princeton elm, the tree has the ability to tolerate and repel the fungus without actually succumbing to the deadly disease. Links:  MN Dept of Trans Plant Selector; Delaware Center for Horticulture; Return of the American Elm: Riveredge Farms

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Maple, Red (Acer rubrum)   

A native tree with a height of 40-70’ and width of 30-60’.  An excellent landscape tree with an oval to round crown.  Named for the red flowers in the very early spring.  Produces winged V-shaped pairs of seed that ripens in late April to mid June.  Growth rate is moderate to rapid.  Roots are shallow, fibrous.  Tolerates a wide variety of sites and can be found growing in very wet to very dry conditions.  Often tapped for maple syrup.  Fall color can vary from red to orange to yellow. Links: MN Tree Handbook;  The Right Tree Handbook; Virginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; Missouri Botanical Garden; U W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics

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Maple, Sugar (Acer saccharum)

A large, long-lived native tree with a height of 60-80’ and width of 60-80’.  Shade tolerant.  Has a dense, upright oval to rounded crown.  Excellent shade tree.  Valuable lumber and veneer source.  Primary maple syrup source tree.  Slow to moderate growth rate.  Roots are deep, fibrous, spreading making it extremely wind firm.  Fall leaf color is yellow to orange to scarlet. Links: MN Tree Handbook; The Right Tree HandbookVirginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; MN Dept of Trans Plant Selector; Missouri Botanical Garden; U W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics

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Oak, Bur (Quercus macrocarpa)

A large, rugged, native, long-lived tree with a height of 70-80’ and width of 40-80’.  Form is wide spreading.  Extremely adaptable to dry, rocky or sandy sites.  Needs full sun.  Produces acorns in good crops every 2-3 years, eaten by many forms of wildlife.  Slow growth rate, with very deep taproot system.  Integral part of Oak Savanna native prairies.

 Links: MN Tree Handbook; North Dakota Tree HandbookThe Right Tree Handbook; Virginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; MN Dept of Trans Plant SelectorU W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics

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Oak, Red (Quercus rubra)          

A native tree with a height of 60-80+’ and width of 40-50’.  Leaves develop excellent fall colors from orange to red.  Growth rate is rapid (fastest of all oaks).  Quite tolerant of most soils and grows best on north and east slopes.  Large acorn crop every 2-5 years.  Wood is valuable for lumber, veneer. Links: MN Tree Handbook; The Right Tree HandbookVirginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; MN Dept of Trans Plant Selector; U W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics

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Oak, Swamp White (Quercus bicolor)  

A native, long-lived tree with a height of 60-70’ and width of 40-50’.  Good tolerance to heavy, poorly drained soils and to drought.  Also does well in upland sites.  Slow growth rate.  Form is broad oval to round crown.  Produces acorns in good crops every 3-5 years, with light crops in between. Links: MN Tree Handbook; The Right Tree Handbook; Virginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; MN Dept of Trans Plant Selector; U W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics

Oak, White (Quercus alba)

A native, long-lived tree with a height of 60-100’ and width of 50-90’.  Moderate growth rate.  Deep taproot.  Form is round to wide spreading crown. Acorns, produced in good crops every 4-10 years, are eaten by many wildlife species.  Wood is valuable.  Prefers well drained, moist soils but will tolerate moderately dry soils.  

Links: MN Tree Handbook; The Right Tree Handbook;  Virginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; MN Dept of Trans Plant Selector; U W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics

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Walnut, Black (Juglans nigra)      

A large, native tree with a height of 10-100+’ and width of 60-100+’.  Rapid growth rate.  Deep taproot.  Produces large, edible walnut that ripens in fall.  Wood valuable for lumber, veneer.  Prefers deep, well-drained moist soils.  Not recommended for yards as its roots secrete a substance toxic to conifers and most flowers and vegetables.

Links: MN Tree Handbook;  North Dakota Tree HandbookVirginia Tech; Ohio DNR; Forest Images; MN Dept of Trans Plant Selector; U W Madison; USDA Forest Service Silvics; Growing Black Walnut; Walnut Toxicity UM; Walnut Toxicity UW; Walnut Toxicity Virginia Ext; Walnut Toxicity Ohio State; Walnut Toxicity uwex; Walnut Toxicity NPR; Walnut Toxicity Purdue;